Today Fort Eustis is one of 16 Training and Doctrine Command installations. It is the Spearhead of Logistics, and the training ground for the majority of the Army’s transportation specialties. Its diverse landscape and easy access to the James River make it a great location to train Service members in transportation, aviation maintenance, logistics and deployment doctrine.
In 2005 the Base Realignment and Closure Commission report, Langley Air Force Base and Fort Eustis combined their administrative functions and became Joint Base Langley-Eustis (JBLE). Both bases are rich in history read more about Fort Eustis below.
1003 Pearl Pl Newport News, VA 23604
Fort Eustis is located on the Virginia Peninsula in the city of Newport News. Fort Eustis is home to the US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). US Army TRADOC Band, Joint Task Force-Civil Support HQ, Installation Management Command Atlantic Region, 93rd Signal Brigade, Network Enterprise Technology Command, and US Army Contracting Command North Region.
Fort Eustis History
Since 1917, first as a camp and later as a permanent post, Fort Eustis has had a proud heritage of supporting our nation’s combat forces.
Fort Eustis was known in colonial times as Mulberry Island. It was the residence of John Rolfe, husband of Pocahontas.
During the Civil War, Fort Crawford, part of Confederate General John B Magruder’s defensive line was here.
On March 7, 1918, the Army bought Mulberry Island and the surrounding acreage for $538,000 in response to the need for Army camps due to the increase of soldiers during World War I. Camp Abraham Eustis was established as a coast artillery replacement center for Fort Monroe and as a balloon observation school.
Camp Eustis became Fort Eustis and a permanent military installation in 1923. It was garrisoned by artillery and infantry units until 1931, when it became a federal prison, primarily for bootleggers. Prohibition’s repeal caused a prisoner decline and the post was taken over by various other military and non-military activities.
Fort Eustis reopened as a military installation in August 1940 as the Coast Artillery Replacement Training Center. In 1946, Fort Eustis became home to the newly-formed Transportation School which moved here from New Orleans. Training in rail, marine, amphibious operations and other modes of transportation was consolidated at Fort Eustis.
Today Fort Eustis is a Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), Installation. It is the Spearhead of Logistics, home of US Army Transportation.
The History of the Transportation Corps
The Transportation Corps was established 31 July 1942 by Executive Order 9082. Transporters have a long history of answering the nations call. As far back as the Revolutionary War when General George Washington appointed the first Wagon Master, Transporters have been there to move and sustain American fighting forces.
Prior to the war of 1812, military transportation had taken a back seat in the national military strategy. It was apparent after the war that some form of organized transportation support was needed to guarantee the new nation’s ability to successfully engage and defeat an enemy. In response to this need, General Thomas S. Jesup was appointed as Quartermaster General in 1818. Later General Jesup initiated programs that not only improved the transportation capability of the U.S. military, but also encouraged the United States expansion to the west. These programs included the building of the Great Military Road of 1836 which linked the far flung ports of the west with the industrial bases of the east and the use of the steamship for amphibious landings.
During the Civil War, transportation proved to be an integral part of military logistics through the organization of railroads as a viable and efficient means of military transportation. By 1864 five of the nine divisions in the Quartermaster Department dealt exclusively with transportation. A substantial number of battles were won due to the field commander’s ability to swiftly and effectively move troops and supplies.
During the Spanish American War the awesome task of mobilizing and deploying a largely volunteer force to Cuba and the Philippines magnified the need for a separate transportation service within the Quartermaster Department. Army transporters worked with both the civilian railroads and the maritime industry to pull together a successful intermodal operation.
The Army Expeditionary Force that deployed to France during World War I emphasized the need for a single transportation manager. W.W. Attebury, a former railroad executive, was appointed as the Director General of Transportation and a separate Transportation Corps was established in 1918. Having satisfied the immediate need and requirements of the day, this forerunner of the modern Transportation Corps was abolished after the war.
With the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States began the largest mobilization in its history. This time there was no hesitation concerning the control of transportation. In March 1942, the transportation functions were consolidated
into the Transportation Division of the newly created Services of Supply. That same year, on 31 July, President Roosevelt established the Transportation Corps. By the end of the war the Transportation Corps had moved more than 30 million Soldiers within the continental United States; and 7 million Soldiers plus 126 million tons of supplies overseas.
When the Soviet Union cordoned off the city of Berlin in 1948, the Transportation Corps played a vital role in sustaining the city. Two years later, on 28 June 1950, President Truman established the Transportation Corps as a permanent branch of the Army.
During the Korean Conflict, the Transportation Corps kept the U.N. Forces supplied through three brutal winters. By the time the armistice was signed, the Transportation Corps had moved more than 3 million Soldiers and 7 million tons of cargo.
The Vietnam War saw the most diversified assortment of transportation units ever assembled. For over a decade the Transportation Corps provided continuous support for American and allied forces through an unimproved tropical environment using watercraft, amphibians, motor trucks and Transportation Corps aircraft.
On 31 July 1986, the Transportation Corps was inducted into the U.S. Army Regimental System, heralding a new era in Transportation.
In 1990, the Transportation Corps faced one of its greatest challenges in its 200 year history with the onset of the Gulf War. During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, the Transportation Corps working out of ports on three continents effectively demonstrated its ability to deploy and sustain massive forces. Transporters ensured that no Soldier was without the resources to face and defeat the enemy.
Successful operations in Somalia, Rwanda, Haiti and Bosnia have continued to demonstrate the successes of the Transportation Corps’ Soldiers.
Fort Eustis, home of US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), US Army TRADOC band, Joint Task Force – Civil Support, HQ, Installation Management Command Atlantic Region, 93rd Signal Brigade, Network Enterprise Technology Command, US Army Contracting Command North Region.
The 633rd Air Base Wing History
Originally designated the 633rd Combat Support Group, it was established and activated March 14, 1966, and organized April 8, 1966.
It was originally assigned to the 13th Air Force as part of the Pacific Air Forces at Pleiku Air Base, South Vietnam, and later at Andersen AFB, Guam. During the Vietnam War, Airmen of the 633 ABW participated in numerous campaigns, air offensives and Operations Arc Light, Bullet Shot and Linebacker.
On Oct. 1, 1989, the Wing aligned under the 13th Air Force, activated on Andersen AFB, Guam, and became the host unit, providing services for various tenant units. This marked the transfer of Andersen AFB control from Strategic Air Command to PACAF.
In August 1990, 633 ABW personnel began shipping more than 37,000 tons of munitions to forces in the Persian Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm – more than 30,000 tons went by sealift, and more than 2,200 troops and 2,200 tons of cargo processed aboard 200 aircraft.
Operation Fiery Vigil spun into action June 1991, when 633 ABW personnel cared for more than 20,000 American evacuees and 1,100 pets following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines.
On Oct. 1, 1994, the 633 ABW was inactivated and the 36th ABW was activated in keeping with the policy of the Air Force Chief of Staff to maintain the most highly decorated and longest-serving Air Force units on active-duty. The 36th ABW was inactivated at Bitburg AB, Germany, that same day.
On Jan. 7, 2010, the 9th AF reactivated the 633 ABW and declared it to be the host unit for Langley AFB, Va.
On Jan. 29, 2010, the 633 ABW became the link in the joint basing initiative between Langley AFB and U.S. Army Fort Eustis, which we call today Joint Base Langley-Eustis.
(Current as of January 2010)
From 1st Pursuit Group to 1st Fighter Wing:
A brief walk through fighter history
The 1st Fighter Wing’s long and distinguished history began May 5, 1918, when the American Expeditionary Force organized the 1st Pursuit Group, the first American group-level fighter organization. In 1975, the 1 FW was designated then-Langley’s host unit, until Jan. 7, 2010, when the 9th Air Force reactivated the 633d Air Base Wing and established it as Langley’s new host unit. As of Jan. 29, 2010, the 1 FW joined other units as a tenant unit at Joint Base Langley-Eustis.
During World War I, the 1 PG tested new aircraft and perfected fighter tactics developed over the skies of France. On April 14, 1918, the unit recorded the first confirmed aerial victory of the war.
By the end of the war the 1 PG had amassed 202 confirmed kills and earned seven campaign credits. Second Lt. Frank Luke Jr., 27th Aero Squadron, and 1st Lt. Edward “Eddie” V. Rickenbacker, 94th Aero Squadron, each earned a Medal of Honor for his actions.
During World War II, the 1st Fighter Group again excelled as pilots flying the P-38 Lightning provided vital escort support to allied bombing operations; the unit flew more than 20,000 sorties on 1,405 combat missions and scored more than 400 aerial kills. Their accomplishments earned them 15 campaign credits and three distinguished unit citations.
In April 1950, the 1 FG was redesignated the 1st Fighter Interceptor Group. The unit served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War by conducting academic and flight training in tactics, techniques, and operations for combat aircrew of the F-4 and B-57.
On March 14, 1974, the Air Force announced plans to station the first operational F-15C Eagle Wing at Langley. In late 1976, under the command of Col. Larry Welch, Langley and the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing received its first F-15C Eagle aircraft. Introducing the F-15 into the Air Force’s operational inventory, the Wing received its first Air Force Outstanding Unit Award. Airmen of the Wing went on to help prepare other bases for their reception of the F-15. The 1 TFW also participate in worldwide deployments and training exercises throughout the 1980s.
The training and experience gained in the 1980s was called upon in the summer of 1990, when Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait. On Aug. 7, 1990, the wing deployed 48 aircraft to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield. By Jan. 16, 1991, as Desert Shield came to a close, the Wing had amassed 4,207 sorties. When Desert Shield evolved into Desert Storm, 16 of the Wing’s F-15s participated in yet another combat mission. On March 8, 1991, the 1 TFW returned to Langley from Saudi Arabia. In October 1991, the 1 TFW was redesignated to the 1st Fighter Wing.
On Sept. 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks committed against the United States prompted action from U.S. Forces around the world. At Langley, the 1 FW’s weapons loaders quickly armed F-15s which were scrambled to protect America’s air space from additional terrorist attacks. Other Airmen of the 1 FW secured the base, donated blood and pitched in wherever possible. During Operation Noble Eagle, wing aircraft provided air cover over several major cities, including New York City and the District of Columbia. At the same time, hundreds of Wing members deployed to support what came to be known as the Global War on Terror.
By March 2002, the 1 FW had deployed a dozen F-15s and more than 600 Airmen to Iraq. When President George Bush ordered U.S. troops into action, wing aircraft, charged with gaining and maintaining air superiority, sprang into action. The Wing’s F-15s dominated the air space, flying 360 sorties and intimidating the Iraqi Air force to stay on the ground. In some cases Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi Air Force even tried burying its planes under the ground.
Given the history of the 1 FW and its success in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Air Force announced on Jan. 15, 2002, plans for the Wing to bring the F-22 Raptor into combat operational status. The first Raptor assigned to the Wing arrived Jan. 7, 2005. This aircraft was allocated as a trainer, and as such, was docked in a hanger for maintenance personnel to familiarize themselves with its complex systems. The second Raptor, designated for flying operations, arrived Jan. 18, 2005. On Dec. 15, 2005, Air Combat Command commander, along with the 1 FW commander, announced the 27th Fighter Squadron as fully operational capable to fly, fight and win with the F-22.
Today, the 1 FW houses the 1st Operations Group, composed of the 27 FS (Fightin’ Eagles) and the 94 FS (Hat-in-the-Ring Gang). Also encompassed by the 1 FW is the 1st Maintenance Group. The 1 FW continues to support Joint Base Langley-Eustis’ flying mission to meet the demands of air superiority.
(Current as of October 2010)
Throughout nine decades of service, the 1st Fighter Wing continues to carve its niche in U.S. air history with many aviation firsts:
-The first U.S. group level flying unit to enter air combat
-The first U.S. unit to destroy an enemy aircraft in World War I
-The parent unit of the first recipient of the Medal of Honor for aerial combat
-The parent unit of the highest scoring U.S. ace in World War I
-The only U.S. Army fighter group from 1919 to 1932
-The first unit equipped with the Lockheed P-38 Lightning
-The first fighter unit to deploy en masse over the North Atlantic
-The first American unit to destroy a German aircraft in World War II
-The first operational unit to fly the F-15C Eagle
-The first tactical fighter unit to deploy to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield
-The first operational F-22 Raptor Wing to take part in a major theater exercise, Northern Edge 2006
-Parent unit of the first operational F-22 squadron to successfully test new limits on a Joint Direct Attack Munitions
633rd Air Base Wing Mission
The 633rd Air Base Wing is comprised of three groups that provide installation support to more than 9,000 military and civilian personnel including Headquarters Air Combat Command and three operational wings. The Wing provides mission-ready expeditionary Airmen to combatant commanders in support of joint and combined operations worldwide. The activation of the 633 ABW as the new host unit for Langley Air Force Base, Va., Jan. 7, 2010, was the first step toward Joint Base Langley-Eustis.
Joint Base Langley-Eustis Public Affairs
Fort Eustis Public Affairs